Most insects undergoing complete metamorphosis do so without an outer covering of the pupae. Protection of the pupae is achieved by the pupation site and the cuticle of the pupa alone.
However, flies within the taxon Cyclorrhapha protect their pupae using a puparium. The puparium is the hardened exoskeleton of the last larval instar. When the fly is ready to emerge it breaks the end off the puparium (along a line of weakness) and emerges.
Puparia are well known to fishermen as a type of bait known as casters.
A photograph of puparia of the medfly (Ceratitis capitata)
Scott Bauer, USDA
Other names for (or types of) Puparium include:
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