Indirect flight muscles
Indirect flight muscles are found in more advanced insects such as true flies. Indirect flight muscles are connected to the upper (tergum) and lower (sternum) surfaces of the insect thorax. A second set of muscles attach to the front and back of the thorax. The wings are raised by the muscles attached to the upper and lower surface of the thorax contracting. This brings the top surface of the thorax down and, along with it, the base of the wings. As a result the wing tips pivot upwards. The wings are then lowered by a contraction of the muscles attached to the front and rear of the thorax. This forces the upper surface of the thorax to raise and the wings pivot downwards.
Illustration of the operation of an insect's wings using indirect flight muscles. The darker muscles are those in the process of contracting.
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