Darwinism is the term used to describe the process of evolution through natural selection.
Within a group of individuals in a species there is variation. For example, within a group of stick insects belonging to the same species there is variation in how the insects look. Some insects will look more like the surrounding leaves than others. Those insects that look more like the leaves are less likely to be eaten by predators; as it's harder for the predators to spot them. This means the insects that aren't eaten are more likely to produce offspring and these offspring carry some of the traits of their parents. Over a sufficiently long period of time this process can produce new species.
The cover of the February 2009 AES Bulletin showing a picture of Charles Darwin.
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